Green ammonia produced from renewable power sources is a leading low-carbon fuel contender for shipping as it is reasonably energy-dense and a known commodity.

But its toxicity is a major concern, classed as potentially intolerable in a June report by the Together in Safety group that includes Lloyd’s Register, APM Terminals, Chevron, Euronav, AP Moller-Maersk, MSC Shipmanagement and Shell.

In the same week, a Bureau Veritas report, in collaboration with TotalEnergies, said ammonia presents “several safety challenges, which must be addressed before it can be used on board ships”.