Singapore and Oslo continue to be among the least expensive of shipping’s major capitals for expatriates, latest research has shown.

The Asian and Scandinavian shipping hubs rank as the 13th and 19th most expensive cities in the world, according to a cost-of-living report compiled by ECA International.

Hong Kong retains its spot at number one, bolstered by higher prices and a stronger currency over the past year, while New York overtakes Geneva in third to take second place.