Shipping has a choice. It can take tough decisions now to ensure it cuts emissions in line with Paris climate change targets, or try to slide out of its responsibilities and come a cropper later.

Those decisions form the key challenge for the International Maritime Organization, according to Tristan Smith, the naval architect and engineer who has arguably researched shipping’s decarbonisation science most deeply and collaborated most with vessel operators to solve the problems over the past decade.

Time is running out, while few of the choices are yet clear or will be easy to take or enact, the reader in energy and shipping at the UCL Energy Institute, part of University College London, tells TW+.