The complex legal fallout for shipping from the 2008 financial crisis and the collapse of OW Bunker in 2014 were turning points in the take-up of freight defence & demurrage (FD&D) insurance.

There has seemingly been no let-up since then in major global incidents for which owners and operators need access to the expert advice and protection available through FD&D cover.

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and Covid are live issues.