Optimism that 2021 would see an easing of the Covid-19 crew crisis turned out to be wide of the mark, as governments continued to make life difficult for crew, and vaccinations did not solve the problem.

At the peak of the crisis this year, around 400,000 crew members were estimated to be affected by travel and quarantine restrictions.

Crews were often forced to work beyond the 11-month limit set by the Maritime Labour Convention 2006.