The pending IMO 2020 mandate curbing ship exhaust's sulphur content to 0.5% may pose negative consequences for the maritime industry and global economy, marine fuel experts say.

EnSys Energy and Navigistics Consultants list several "major impacts and big risks" in an update to their IMO 2020 Sulphur Rule in Full Update to 2016 Study.

"As 2020 gets closer the picture is becoming clearer and it does not look good for the global economy," the two consultancies say in a joint news release.