A growing number of major charterers are shunning tankers that have been engaged in Venezuelan trade in recent months as the US ramps up sanctions on the Maduro regime.

Based on some charter terms TradeWinds has seen, Unipec and ExxonMobil have inserted legal wording in their freight contracts that effectively ban any tonnage linked to Venezuelan oil flows in the past year.

Those include ships that have visited Venezuela, carried oil to or from Venezuela, or been chartered to or "otherwise associated with" sanctioned Venezuelan entities.