Carbon pricing could start at just $11 per tonne — but as it would need to make potentially unacceptably big jumps in later years, it could be better to begin with a higher figure, according to a briefing from the Getting to Zero Coalition.

The average carbon price for net zero emissions by 2050 would not need to be much higher than one that achieves a 50% reduction.

The paper — based on analysis by maritime consultancy UMAS on behalf of the Getting to Zero Coalition, Global Maritime Forum, Friends of Ocean Action and World Economic Forum — sets out policy options for closing the competitiveness gap between fossil and zero-emission fuels in shipping.