With the completion of ‘static’ flight tests for Airseas’ kite wing on transatlantic voyages by a Louis Dreyfus ro-ro chartered by Airbus, the next stage of the technology’s verification will involve “dynamic” flying.

The Seawing system has proven it can pull the 21,500-gt Ville de Bordeaux (built 2004) as it transports aircraft components between France and the US, and that its automated take-off and landing is fully functional.

But to access a full average 20% reduction in fuel use and emissions, it is necessary to go from having the kite wing simply pulling from above and forward of the ship to swooping through the air in figures of eight.