As all eyes turn to Dubai for COP28, the magnitude of the clean energy shipping challenge before us is daunting. But you can pretty much boil it down to our ability to drive down costs and drive up efficiencies in two critical technologies: electrolysers and carbon capture.

Ultimately, our ability to harness clean energy to split water into oxygen and green hydrogen via electrolysis at scale, and to efficiently trap CO2 from fossil fuel emissions and produce blue hydrogen via carbon capture technology are going to be the defining challenges.