Ukraine’s grain sector has begun the gargantuan task of getting the commodity to market without the use of the country’s major ports.

2022 had been expected to be a record-breaking year for Ukrainian grain and oilseed production. But the Ukrainian Grain Association (UGA) expects annual production to fall by 40% to about 63m tonnes this year, following Russia’s invasion.

But before this year’s harvest, which traditionally starts from June or July, the challenge is to work out how to export about 26m tonnes of grain that Ukraine has in stocks, which are worth up to $7bn at current prices.