Shipping could face greater risks that regional and national governments will develop more of their own decarbonisation rules after a decision by an international tribunal.

The International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea ruled that greenhouse gas emissions count as marine pollution under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

The tribunal, which interprets the treaty, had been asked by a group of developing countries to offer an interpretation of the convention to enable them to push for stronger action at the International Maritime Organization and other UN-related bodies.