Pools operator Tankers International has highlighted compliance concerns over increased dry-dockings of elderly VLCCs operating in sanctioned oil trades.

The past couple of years have seen a notable uptick in yard maintenance activity for these ships, it noted, as the so-called “shadow fleet” has grown.

Tankers International’s data shows more than 40 VLCCs above 18 years of age were dry-docked in 2023.