Livestock carriers have had bad press in the last few years with a series of capsizes, fires and sinkings, but also serious concerns over animal welfare on board.

The welfare of livestock on board vessels during transportation has been taken up by the European Union, with a recognition that more research is needed to understand animal husbandry needs.

Research has identified animal mechanisms for coping with a ship voyage as well as the physical, physiological and behavioural factors, including processes, installations and equipment needs.