Ports are just as vulnerable to cyber-attacks as any other maritime assets.

To counter the threat, North America’s largest port, the Port of Los Angeles, unveiled an IBM-run Cyber Resilience Center in late January. It allows about 20 ports worldwide to share cyber-threat indicators and possible defensive tactics.

Los Angeles, which handles nearly 11m teu of containerised cargo per year, unveiled in 2014 a cybersecurity operation centre designed to protect it and its internal networks.