Shipowners and charterers need to work together and develop a better understanding of ship efficiency as the Carbon Intensity Indicator ratings become a factor in commercial decision making, according to specialist consultant Edwin Pang.

The lack of CII enforcement measures has, in effect, put pressure on charterers to marginalise low-efficiency ships and push them out of the market to help progress decarbonisation.

Under CII, ships are required to adopt an approved energy management plan and undergo assessment and rating, but there are as yet no factors that could lead to detention or withdrawal of certification.