The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is aiming to hike the maximum civil penalty for violating tighter emission control standards under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Marpol), according to a document spelling out a get-tough enforcement policy.

The EPA is expected to seek to increase the cap by 60%.

It recently released its plan, laying out the factors it will weigh up when deciding civil penalties for failing to use compliant fuel in the North American and US Caribbean emission control areas (ECAs), where sulphur content limits dropped to 0.1%