Converting container ships to alternative fuels such as methanol or ammonia demands significant investment and loss of cargo capacity but clever designs can mitigate those costs, says a new report from the Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Center for Zero Carbon Shipping.

Additional capital expenditure for new ships and conversions range from 10% to 33% of the cost of a standard fuel oil newbuilding, the study found in considering converting from fuel oil to methanol or ammonia, and from LNG to ammonia.