Cyber-risk exclusion clauses have been applied across nearly all areas of marine insurance apart from protection and indemnity cover, but how long can that continue?

The issue came into focus for shipowners last year when the Lloyd’s of London market required underwriters to clarify whether malicious cyber-attack was included as an insured risk, due to confusion in the market.

Underwriters responded by writing explicit cyber-risk exclusion clauses into many hull and machinery, loss of hire and war risk policies.