Hackers can infect a vessel's IT systems with viruses such as malware and ransomware in a multitude of ways, according to cyber security experts. "Antennae are complex devices but they have to interface with different modems and can be connected with other devices on the vessel. That's a problem" Ruben Santamarta "There could be personnel from the service supplier coming onboard with a laptop which was used to browse dodgy web pages or it [an infection] could be a remotely transferred software with malware in the package sent from shore to the vessel," says